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Double layers
Double layers of space charge are formed where strong enough parallel currents appear in a plasma. Observations by the FAST satellite (e.g., Andersson et al. 2002, Phys. Plasmas, vol. 9, pp 3600-3609) have shown that double layers occur naturally in space plasmas in the auroral region and that high frequency electrostatic waves are generated on the DL's high-potential side (Gunell et al. 1996, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., vol. 29, pp 643-654, doi:10.1088/0022-3727/29/3/025). I have performed Vlasov simulations of auroral flux tubes, where double layers are seen in the acceleration region (Gunell et al. 2013, Ann. Geophys., vol. 31, pp 1227-1240, doi:10.5194/angeo-31-1227-2013).
Simulated hf-spike
A high frequency spike seen in a simulation.

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Updated 2015-10-30